teacher spends much classroom time explaining or demonstrating something
to the whole class, a small group, or an individual. Student resource
materials typically do not provide extensive explanations of concepts,
and students often need a demonstration in order to understand procedures.
are given to help students acquire or deepen their understanding
of a concept, while others help students understand generalizations.
Concerning the former, the teacher must select an appropriate concept
definition and appropriate examples and nonexamples. Regarding the
latter, Shostak (1986) suggests that an explanation can show:
cause and effect relationship (for example, to show the effect
of adding an acid to a base);
an action is governed by a rule or law (for example, to show when
to capitalize a noun);
procedure or process (for example, to show the operation of solving
a mathematical equation); or,
intent of an activity or process (for example, to show the use
of foreshadowing in drama).