is Anticipation Guide?
guides, according to Frank Smith (1978) allow the reader to make
predictions about text that will be read by eliminating possibilities
that are unlikely.
is its purpose?
called reaction or prediction guides, the anticipation guide is
a way to prepare a reader prior to a reading assignment by asking
them to react to a series of statements related to the content of
for using anticipation guides include:
prior knowledge to new information to enhance comprehension,
interest which stimulates discussion on the topic, and
creating possibilities for integrating reading and writing instruction.
can I do it?
the passage or story
and analyze the text to identify the major concepts (both
explicit and implicit).
on majour concepts
which concepts are most important. Use these to create student
interest and to agitate or stimulate reflection on prior knowledge
statements on major concepts
short, declarative statements about the major concepts. There
can be as few as 3-5 statements or up to about 15. The statements
should be thought-provoking and reflect the students' backgrounds.
General statements are better than abstract or overly specific
ones. Famous quotations and idioms work well. The statements
should be written in a format that will elicit students to
predict and anticipate.
allow students time to react to each statement, display the
guide either on the blackboard or on an overhead, or distribute
individual worksheets. Give clear directions for what the
students are to do with the guide, such as writing an "A"
for agreeing or a "D" for disagreeing in the left-hand
column for each statement. Make sure to leave space for responses
on the sheet. Students can complete the guides individually,
in pairs or small groups, or as a whole class.
a class discussion about the concepts before the students
read the text. Students are expected to support their answers
with more than a "yes" or "no" response.
Students are to give examples from past experience and explain
the decision-making process by which they arrive at their
students read the selected text, evaluating the statements
from the anticipation guide in light of the author's intent
Revisit the guide after you have read the passage to allow
students to compare and contrast their original responses
with current ones. The objective is to see what information
the reading of the passage has allowed them to assimilate
and Evaluation Considerations
anticipation guide allows students to anticipate major concepts
that will be encountered during their reading of a text. Discussion
stimulates review of what students know and believe and allow
them to expand these concepts. This type of previewing allows
students to take charge of their own learning and to focus their
reading. The teacher can use the anticipation guide to preview
students' beliefs and knowledge about a subject.
F. (1978). Reading. New York, NY: Teachers College