Know - Want to Know - Learned
is an introductory strategy that provides a structure for recalling
what students know about a topic, noting what students want to know,
and finally listing what has been learned and is yet to be learned.
is its purpose?
K-W-L strategy allows students to take inventory of what they already
know and what they want to know. Students can categorize information
about the topic that they expect to use.
can I do it?
the chalkboard, on an overhead, on a handout, or on students'
individual clean sheets, three columns should be drawn.
Column 1 K, Column 2 W, Column 3 L.
reading, students fill in the Know column with everything they
already know about the topic. This helps generate their background
have students predict what they might learn about the topic, which
might follow a quick glance at the topic headings, pictures, and
charts that are found in the reading. This helps set their purpose
for reading and focuses their attention on key ideas.
you might have students put in the middle column what they want
to learn about the topic.
reading, students should fill in their new knowledge gained
from reading the content. They can also clear up misperceptions
about the topic which might have shown up in the Know column
before they actually read anything. This is the stage of metacognition:
did they get it or not?
can I adapt it?
et. al. (1998) have modified the K-W-L chart to include a fourth
column at the end, W for "Further Wanderings." In their
K-W-L-W chart, this column is for students to pose new questions
they have as a result of their research. They also suggest that
the first column be filled in individually first and then knowledge
and questions from the entire class are pooled second. Throughout
the unit, students add to the columns as they encounter new information.
Different colored markers or pencils can be used to visually represent
new learning. Margaret Mooney suggests adding a fifth column, H,
(K-W-H-L-W) for "How" the students intend to gather the
information once they've determined what they need to learn. The
K-W-L chart (and its modifications) helps students organize their
thoughts about a topic.
additions to chart and/or topics for discussion:
we think we know, but aren't sure about
our evidence for what we know
we might find out what we want to know (what would be evidence?)
could we find out by interacting with or observing the materials/phenomena,
rather than by reading or asking experts?
questions do we still have?
& Evaluation Considerations
students' ability to focus on a topic or task in a group situation.
students' participation in the oral expression of ideas.
listening behaviours. (Do students take turns speaking? Do they
ask for clarifications?)
record students' oral language strengths, weaknesses and development
in their files.